DOI: 10.3390/agronomy14030541 ISSN: 2073-4395

Business and Market Analysis of Hydrothermal Carbonization Process: Roadmap toward Implementation

Gianluigi Farru, Fabiano Bisinella Scheufele, Daniela Moloeznik Paniagua, Fritz Keller, Changyoon Jeong, Daniele Basso
  • Agronomy and Crop Science

This study assesses the status of hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) technology and identifies barriers hindering its commercial viability. Conducting a global survey among HTC companies (with a total of 24 surveys sent), the research evaluates the current landscape, challenges, and future prospects of large-scale HTC operations. Furthermore, it presents a detailed global inventory of existing HTC facilities, illustrating geographical distribution and trends in application. Most of the companies are located in Europe, followed by Asia and North America. With substantial participation from HTC companies, exceeding 62% in the survey (15 companies), the study provides a comprehensive overview of diverse companies, their business models, regulatory challenges, and the overall state of HTC technology. The majority of companies in this study, approximately 80%, offer services in the field of waste management. This paper also explores the potential of HTC in transforming waste management practices, carbon sequestration methodologies, and the development of new materials. Employing a thorough SWOT analysis, the paper advocates for a broader adoption of HTC, emphasizing its transformative capacity in fostering sustainable management of urban, industrial, and agricultural residues, promoting circular economy principles, mitigating climate change, and offering a robust foundation for informed decision-making and sustainable development strategies.

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