DOI: 10.2166/wcc.2023.669 ISSN: 2040-2244

Bias correction of ERA5-Land temperature data using standalone and ensemble machine learning models: a case of northern Italy

Majid Niazkar, Reza Piraei, Andrea Menapace, Pranav Dhawan, Daniele Dalla Torre, Michele Larcher, Maurizio Righetti
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Global and Planetary Change


Using the global climate model outputs without any adjustment may bring errors in water resources and climate change investigations. This study tackles the critical issue of bias correction temperature in ERA5-Land reanalysis for 10 ground stations in the northern Italy using 9 machine learning (ML) techniques. Among standalone ML models, XGBoost regression emerged as the most effective standalone ML model, outperforming others across 6 out of 10 stations, while random forest regression, Gaussian process regression, and support vector regression obtained the second to fourth places. In contrast, AdaBoost regression (ABR) achieved the least favorable performance. Furthermore, nine ensemble ML models are proposed to correct bias of the reanalysis of temperature data. The results indicated that the K-nearest neighbors-based ensemble model excelled and secured the top rank in 7 out of 10 stations, while the multiple linear regression-based ensemble model achieved the highest precision in 4 out of 10 stations. Furthermore, other ML-based ensemble models displayed satisfactory results. On the other hand, the ABR-based ensemble model exhibited the lowest accuracy among ML-based ensemble models. The findings highlight the potential of ML-based ensemble models in effectively addressing bias correction in climate data.

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