DOI: 10.1002/chem.202400474 ISSN: 0947-6539

Azulene‐Containing Bis(squaraine) Dyes: Design, Synthesis and Aggregation Behaviors

Yiming Yao, Xuan Sun, Zuyuan Zhang, Haoyun Yu, Xiaodi Yang, Dan Ding, Xike Gao
  • General Chemistry
  • Catalysis
  • Organic Chemistry

The relationship among chemical structure, physicochemical property and aggregation behavior of organic functional material is an important research topic. Here, we designed and synthesized three bis(squaraine) dyes BSQ1, BSQ2 and BSQ3 through the combination of two kinds of unsymmetrical azulenyl squaraine monomers. Their physicochemical properties were investigated in both molecular and aggregate states. Generally, BSQ1 displayed different assembly behavior from BSQ2 and BSQ3. Upon fabrication into nanoparticles, BSQ1 tend to form J‐aggregates while BSQ2 and BSQ3 tend to form H‐aggregates in aqueous medium. When in the form of thin films, three bis(squaraine) dyes all adopted J‐aggregation packing modes while only BSQ1 presented the most significant rearrangement of aggregate structures as well as the improvement in the carrier mobilities upon thermal annealing. Our research highlights the discrepancy of aggregation behaviors originating from the molecular structure and surrounding circumstances, providing guidance for the molecular design and functional applications of squaraines.

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