Iara Pastor Martins Nogueira, Guilherme Mattos Jardim Costa, Samyra Maria dos Santos Nassif Lacerda

Avian iPSC Derivation to Recover Threatened Wild Species: A Comprehensive Review in Light of Well-Established Protocols

  • General Veterinary
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were first generated by Yamanaka in 2006, revolutionizing research by overcoming limitations imposed by the use of embryonic stem cells. In terms of the conservation of endangered species, iPSC technology presents itself as a viable alternative for the manipulation of target genetics without compromising specimens. Although iPSCs have been successfully generated for various species, their application in nonmammalian species, particularly avian species, requires further in-depth investigation to cover the diversity of wild species at risk and their different protocol requirements. This study aims to provide an overview of the workflow for iPSC induction, comparing well-established protocols in humans and mice with the limited information available for avian species. Here, we discuss the somatic cell sources to be reprogrammed, genetic factors, delivery methods, enhancers, a brief history of achievements in avian iPSC derivation, the main approaches for iPSC characterization, and the future perspectives and challenges for the field. By examining the current protocols and state-of-the-art techniques employed in iPSC generation, we seek to contribute to the development of efficient and species-specific iPSC methodologies for at-risk avian species. The advancement of iPSC technology holds great promise for achieving in vitro germline competency and, consequently, addressing reproductive challenges in endangered species, providing valuable tools for basic research, bird genetic preservation and rescue, and the establishment of cryobanks for future conservation efforts.

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