Jae-An Park, DaEl Kim, Su Yang, Ju-Hee Kang, Jo-Eun Kim, Kyung-Hoe Huh, Sam-Sun Lee, Won-Jin Yi, Min-Suk Heo

Automatic detection of posterior superior alveolar artery in dental cone-beam CT images using a deeply supervised multi-scale 3D network

  • General Dentistry
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • General Medicine
  • Otorhinolaryngology

Abstract Objectives This study aimed to develop a robust and accurate deep learning network for detecting the posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) in dental cone-beam CT (CBCT) images, focusing on the precise localization of the centre pixel as a critical centreline pixel. Methods PSAA locations were manually labelled on dental CBCT data from 150 subjects. The left maxillary sinus images were horizontally flipped. In total, 300 datasets were created. Six different deep learning networks were trained, including 3D U-Net, deeply supervised 3D U-Net (3D U-Net DS), multi-scale deeply supervised 3D U-Net (3D U-Net MSDS), 3D Attention U-Net, 3D V-Net, and 3D Dense U-Net. The performance evaluation involved predicting the centre pixel of the PSAA. This was assessed using mean absolute error (MAE), mean radial error (MRE), and successful detection rate (SDR). Results The 3D U-Net MSDS achieved the best prediction performance among the tested networks, with an MAE measurement of 0.696 ± 1.552 mm and MRE of 1.101 ± 2.270 mm. In comparison, the 3D U-Net showed the lowest performance. The 3D U-Net MSDS demonstrated a SDR of 95% within a 2 mm MAE. This was a significantly higher result than other networks that achieved a detection rate of over 80%. Conclusions This study presents a robust deep learning network for accurate PSAA detection in dental CBCT images, emphasizing precise centre pixel localization. The method achieves high accuracy in locating small vessels, such as the PSAA, and has the potential to enhance detection accuracy and efficiency, thus impacting oral and maxillofacial surgery planning and decision-making.

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