Thomas W. Fenn, Christopher M. Brusalis, Sachin Allahabadi, Alexander B. Alvero, John W. Ebersole, Shane J. Nho

Association Between Proximal Hamstring Tear Characteristics and Achievement of Clinically Significant Outcomes After Endoscopic and Open Repair at Minimum 2-Year Follow-up

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Background: The effect of preoperative tear characteristics and the relative efficacy of open versus endoscopic surgical techniques have not been elucidated for the surgical treatment of proximal hamstring tendon injuries. Purpose: (1) To report on achievement rates of clinically significant outcomes at a minimum 2-year follow-up for multiple patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after surgical treatment of proximal hamstring injuries, stratified according to severity of proximal hamstring injury, and (2) to compare clinical outcomes associated with endoscopic versus open surgical repair for a subset of similarly classified tears. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3 Methods: A single-surgeon clinical registry was queried for patients who underwent surgical repair for proximal hamstring ruptures between January 2012 and March 2021. Injuries were classified by magnetic resonance imaging as follows: grade 1, incomplete tear with the involvement of 1 or 2 tendons; grade 2, complete tear with the involvement of 3 tendons and ≤2-cm retraction; and grade 3, complete tear with the involvement of 3 tendons and >2-cm retraction. The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) for multiple PROs was calculated and compared among injury grades and between surgical techniques. Results: Among 75 patients with a mean follow-up of 30.5 ± 5.1 months, 20 had grade 1 tears, 24 had grade 2 tears, and 31 had grade 3 tears. Favorable 2-year postoperative PROs were demonstrated by each grade for all measured PROs. Patients with grade 3 tears were noted to have significantly lower rates of 2-year PASS achievement for the Hip Outcome Score–Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL) and Hip Outcome Score–Sports Specific (HOS-SS) scales ( P≤ .032). Among grade 2 tears, patients treated endoscopically demonstrated significantly greater HOS-SS (endoscopic, 91.7%; open, 58.3%; P = .045) and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System for Physical Function (endoscopic, 80.0%; open, 50.0%; P = .033) PASS achievement rates compared with those treated with the open technique. Complication rates were highest in patients with grade 3 tears (45.2%, P = .043). Conclusion: Surgical repair of proximal hamstring tendon tears with varying extents of tendon retraction resulted in high rates of achieving PASS at the 2-year follow-up. Among complete tears with <2 cm of retraction, endoscopic repairs exhibited equal or higher rates of achieving PASS compared with open repairs across multiple PROs at 2 years postoperatively. However, patients with complete tears and retraction >2 cm achieved lower rates of PASS on the HOS-ADL and HOS-SS scales and had a higher rate of complications.

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