DOI: 10.3390/biomimetics9010017 ISSN: 2313-7673

Assessment of Pedestrians’ Head and Lower Limb Injuries in Tram–Pedestrian Collisions

Yong Peng, Zhengsheng Hu, Zhixiang Liu, Quanwei Che, Gongxun Deng
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Bioengineering
  • Biotechnology

Analysis of pedestrians’ head and lower limb injuries at the tissue level is lacking in studies of tram–pedestrian collisions. The purpose of this paper therefore to investigate the impact response process and severity of pedestrians’ injuries in tram–pedestrian collisions, using the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) pedestrian human body model together with the tram FE model. Two full-scale tram–pedestrian dummy crash tests were performed to validate the FE model, and the total correlation and analysis (CORA) score of head acceleration yielded values of 0.840 and 0.734, confirming a strong agreement between the FE-simulated head responses and the experimental head kinematics. The effects of different tram speeds and impact angles on pedestrians’ impact response injuries and the differences were further analyzed. The results indicate that direct impact of the lower limb with the tram’s obstacle deflector leads to lower limb bone shaft fractures and knee tissue damage. Neck fling contributed to worsened head injury. Coup contusions were the predominant type of brain contusion, surpassing contrecoup contusions, while diffuse axonal injury was mainly concentrated in the collision-side region of the brain. Pedestrians’ injuries are influenced by tram velocity and impact angle: higher tram velocities increase the risk of lower limb and head injuries. The risk of head injury for pedestrians is higher when the impact angle is negative, while lower limb injuries are more significant when the impact angle is 0°. This study provides practical guidance for enhancing tram safety and protecting pedestrians.

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