Hemant Raheja, Arun Goel, Mahesh Pal

Assessment of groundwater quality and human health risk from nitrate contamination using a multivariate statistical analysis

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Waste Management and Disposal
  • Water Science and Technology

Abstract The present study explores the suitability of groundwater for drinking purpose and evaluates non-carcinogenic health risks for children, women, and men. For this purpose, 47 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for physicochemical parameters, including nitrate concentration. The results revealed that nitrate concentration varied from 15 to 85 mg/L and that 48.93% of the groundwater samples exceeded the Bureau of Indian Standards’ limits of 45 mg/L. The spatial map of the pollution index of groundwater specifies that most of the study area lies in moderate to high pollution zones. Principal component analysis was also applied, and five principal components achieving eigenvalues more than 1 with a cumulative variance of 77.36% were found to be sufficient. The findings of non-carcinogenic risk rates range from 0.628 to 3.559 (average of 2.069) for children, 0.427 to 2.421 (average of 1.408) for women, and 0.362 to 2.049 (average of 1.191) for men, and approximately 80% of the population in the study region is exposed to high health risks. The health risk assessment specified that children in the study area are more susceptible than women and men. The findings of this study suggest that groundwater quality in the region has deteriorated, emphasizing the need for treatment before drinking.

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