Carolina Larrain, Alejandro Torres-Hernandez, Daniel Brock Hewitt

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning in the Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • General Medicine

Artificial Intelligence (AI) can be a useful tool in the management of disease processes such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as treatment decisions are often complex and multifaceted. AI applications in medicine are expanding with the ongoing advances in AI including more sophisticated machine learning and deep learning processes. In preliminary studies, AI algorithms have demonstrated superiority in predicting the development of HCC compared with standard models. Radiomics, a quantitative method used to extract features from medical imaging, has been applied to numerous liver imaging modalities to aid in the diagnosis and prognostication of HCC. Deep learning methodologies can help us to identify patients at higher likelihood of disease progression and improve risk stratification. AI applications have expanded into the field of surgery as models not only help us to predict surgical outcomes but AI methodologies are also used intra-operatively, in real time, to help us to define anatomic structures and aid in the resection of complex lesions. In this review, we discuss promising applications of AI in the management of HCC. While further clinical validation is warranted to improve generalizability through the inclusion of larger and more diverse populations, AI is expected to play a central role in assisting clinicians with the management of complex disease processes such as HCC.

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