DOI: 10.3390/ai5010005 ISSN: 2673-2688

Application of YOLOv8 and Detectron2 for Bullet Hole Detection and Score Calculation from Shooting Cards

Marya Butt, Nick Glas, Jaimy Monsuur, Ruben Stoop, Ander de Keijzer
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Scoring targets in shooting sports is a crucial and time-consuming task that relies on manually counting bullet holes. This paper introduces an automatic score detection model using object detection techniques. The study contributes to the field of computer vision by comparing the performance of seven models (belonging to two different architectural setups) and by making the dataset publicly available. Another value-added aspect is the inclusion of three variants of the object detection model, YOLOv8, recently released in 2023 (at the time of writing). Five of the used models are single-shot detectors, while two belong to the two-shot detectors category. The dataset was manually captured from the shooting range and expanded by generating more versatile data using Python code. Before the dataset was trained to develop models, it was resized (640 × 640) and augmented using Roboflow API. The trained models were then assessed on the test dataset, and their performance was compared using matrices like mAP50, mAP50-90, precision, and recall. The results showed that YOLOv8 models can detect multiple objects with good confidence scores. Among these models, YOLOv8m performed the best, with the highest mAP50 value of 96.7%, followed by the performance of YOLOv8s with the mAP50 value of 96.5%. It is suggested that if the system is to be implemented in a real-time environment, YOLOv8s is a better choice since it took significantly less inference time (2.3 ms) than YOLOv8m (5.7 ms) and yet generated a competitive mAP50 of 96.5%.

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