DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.13286 ISSN: 1541-4337

Application of emerging thermal and nonthermal technologies for improving textural properties of food grains: A critical review

Naveed Mahmood, Bertrand Muhoza, Anjineyulu Kothakot, Zeeshan Munir, Yuyang Huang, Yue Zhang, R. Pandiselvam, Sohail Iqbal, Shuang Zhang, Yang Li
  • Food Science


Emerging nonthermal and thermal food processing technologies are a better alternative to conventional thermal processing techniques because they offer high‐quality, minimally processed food. Texture is important in the food industry because it encompasses several product attributes and plays a vital role in consumer acceptance. Therefore, it is imperative to analyze the extent to which these technologies influence the textural attributes of food grains. Physical forces produced by cavitation are attributed to ultrasound treatment‐induced changes in the conformational and structural properties of food proteins. Pulsed electric field treatment causes polarization of starch granules, damaging the dense outer layer of starch granules and decreasing the mechanical strength of starch. Prolonged radio frequency heating results in the denaturation of proteins and gelatinization of starch, thus reducing binding tendency during cooking. Microwave energy induces rapid removal of water from the product surface, resulting in lower bulk density, low shrinkage, and a porous structure. However, evaluating the influence of these techniques on food grain texture is difficult owing to differences in their primary operation mode, operating conditions, and equipment design. To maximize the advantages of nonthermal and thermal technologies, in‐depth research should be conducted on their effects on the textural properties of different food grains while ensuring the selection of appropriate operating conditions for each food grain type. This article summarizes all recent developments in these emerging processing technologies for food grains, discusses their potential applications and drawbacks, and presents prospects for future developments in food texture enhancement.

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