DOI: 10.3390/ijms25010413 ISSN: 1422-0067

Antileishmanial Activity, Toxicity and Mechanism of Action of Complexes of Sodium Usnate with Lanthanide Ions: Eu(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Nd(III), La(III) and Tb(III)

Fernanda da Silva, Yasmin Silva Rizk, Amarith Rodrigues das Neves, Estela Mariana Guimarães Lourenço, Alda Maria Teixeira Ferreira, Melquisedeque Mateus Monteiro, Dênis Pires de Lima, Renata Trentin Perdomo, Iluska Senna Bonfá, Mônica Cristina Toffoli-Kadri, Adriana Pereira Duarte, Daniel Mendes Nunes, Marco Antonio Utrera Martines, Eliane Mattos Piranda, Carla Cardozo Pinto de Arruda
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Leishmaniases are neglected diseases with limited therapeutic options. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis can occur in Brazil due to Leishmania amazonensis. This study details the antileishmanial activity and cytotoxicity of complexes of sodium usnate (SAU) with lanthanide ions ([LnL3 (H2O)x] (Ln = La(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Eu(III) and Sm(III); L = SAU). All lanthanide complexes were highly active and more potent than SAU against L. amazonensis promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes (Pro: IC50 < 1.50 μM; Ama: IC50 < 7.52 μM). EuL3·3H2O and NdL3·3H2O were the most selective and effective on intracellular amastigotes, with a selectivity index of approximately 7.0. In silico predictions showed no evidence of mutagenicity, tumorigenicity or irritation for all complexes. Treatment with EuL3·3H2O triggered NO release even at the lowest concentration, indicating NO production as a mechanism of action against the parasite. Incubating promastigotes with the lanthanide complexes, particularly with SmL3·4H2O and GdL3·3H2O, led to a change in the mitochondrial membrane potential, indicating the ability of these complexes to target this essential organelle. The same complexes caused cell death through cell membrane disruption, but their relationship with early or late apoptotic processes remains unclear. Thus, the inclusion of lanthanide ions in SAU improves selectivity with a promising mechanism of action targeting the mitochondria.

More from our Archive