DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms12010067 ISSN: 2076-2607

Animal and In Vitro Models as Powerful Tools to Decipher the Effects of Enteric Pathogens on the Human Gut Microbiota

Marco Calvigioni, Diletta Mazzantini, Francesco Celandroni, Emilia Ghelardi
  • Virology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology

Examining the interplay between intestinal pathogens and the gut microbiota is crucial to fully comprehend the pathogenic role of enteropathogens and their broader impact on human health. Valid alternatives to human studies have been introduced in laboratory practice to evaluate the effects of infectious agents on the gut microbiota, thereby exploring their translational implications in intestinal functionality and overall health. Different animal species are currently used as valuable models for intestinal infections. In addition, considering the recent advances in bioengineering, futuristic in vitro models resembling the intestinal environment are also available for this purpose. In this review, the impact of the main human enteropathogens (i.e., Clostridioides difficile, Campylobacter jejuni, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei, Vibrio cholerae, and Bacillus cereus) on intestinal microbial communities is summarized, with specific emphasis on results derived from investigations employing animal and in vitro models.

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