DOI: 10.36502/2023/asjbccr.6330 ISSN: 2582-0370

Anesthesia Management of Severe Hypoxemia During Total Arch Replacement for Acute Aortic Dissection: A Case Report

Liu Qian, Haibei Liu, Yujun Zhang
  • General Medicine

Background: Acute aortic dissection poses a life-threatening condition that typically necessitates immediate surgical intervention, such as total arch replacement. However, hypoxemia is a severe complication in such surgeries, potentially resulting in organ dysfunction, prolonged hospital stays, and even mortality. Hypoxemia presents significant challenges to anesthesiologists. Through this case, we can enhance our comprehension of anesthetic management for total arch replacement. Case presentation: A 43-year-old man with acute type A aortic dissection underwent total arch replacement. After a smooth surgery, severe hypoxemia occurred during weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass. Initial interventions, including airway suction and recruitment maneuvers, failed to improve oxygenation. Further investigations found left lung atelectasis and pleural effusion on transesophageal echocardiography, with minimal improvement after drainage. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy revealed extensive tenacious secretions occluding the airways. Conventional suctioning was ineffective due to high sputum viscosity. Ultimately, techniques including pulmonary lavage, bronchoscopic suctioning, and repeated lung recruitment controlled the refractory hypoxemia. The patient recovered after treatment in the intensive care unit. Conclusions: It is worth noting that our case highlights the challenges posed by severe hypoxemia during total arch replacement surgery. The successful management of this complication underscores the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and close monitoring during the perioperative period. Individualized anesthetic management plays a critical role in addressing severe hypoxemia during total arch replacement surgery.

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