DOI: 10.3390/ijms25010308 ISSN: 1422-0067

Andrographolide Alleviates Oxidative Damage and Inhibits Apoptosis Induced by IHNV Infection via CTSK/BCL2/Cytc Axis

Qi Liu, Linfang Li, Jingzhuang Zhao, Guangming Ren, Tongyan Lu, Yizhi Shao, Liming Xu
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is an important pathogen that causes significant economic losses to salmon trout farming. Although vaccines have been invented for the treatment of IHNV, findings from our previous survey show that breeding enterprises and farmers require effective oral drugs or immune enhancers. However, studies on the development of oral drugs are limited. In the present study, we used bioinformatics methods to predict the protein targets of andrographolide (Andro) in IHNV. Cells were infected with IHNV, and the effect of andrographolide was explored by evaluating the expression levels of genes implicated in oxidative stress, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and the expression of genes implicated in apoptosis and necrosis. In the present study, cells were divided into NC, IHNV, IHNV+10 μM andrographolide, and IHNV+20 μM andrographolide groups. qRT-PCR was performed to determine the expression level of genes, and an antioxidant enzyme detection kit was used to evaluate the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Fluorescent staining was performed using a reactive oxygen species detection kit (ROS) and Hoechst 33342/PI double staining kit, and the mechanism of alleviation of apoptosis and oxidative stress andrographolide after IHNV infection was determined. The results indicated that andrographolide inhibits viral growth by binding to the NV protein of IHNV and increasing the antioxidant capacity of the body through the CTSK/BCL2/Cytc axis, thereby inhibiting the occurrence of IHNV-induced apoptosis. This is the first study to explore the antagonistic mechanism of action of andrographolide in alleviating IHNV infection. The results provide valuable information on alternative strategies for the treatment of IHNV infection during salmon family and provide a reference for the use of andrographolide as an antioxidant agent in agricultural settings.

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