DOI: 10.1002/lsm.23743 ISSN: 0196-8092

Analysis of lithotripsy efficiency and stone retropulsion displacement according to pulse characteristics of Ho: YAG laser with Moses effect

Kanghae Kim, Young‐Seok Seo, Phil‐Sang Chung, Joo Beom Eom
  • Dermatology
  • Surgery


Background and Objectives

Compared to the conventional Ho: YAG laser, a Ho: YAG laser device has been reported that has a Moses effect to reduce stone retropulsion and increase lithotripsy efficiency. The principle of this equipment is to convert a single laser pulse into two pulses. Most studies on such lasers are limited to lithotripsy efficiency and the prevention of stone retropulsion; studies according to each pulse condition have not been performed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the bubble shape, lithotripsy efficiency, and stone retropulsion displacement in a ureteral phantom according to the modulation of the first pulse characteristics of the Moses effect laser under conditions that maintained the total energy and repetition rate.

Material and Methods

In this study, a Ho: YAG laser system (Holinwon Pro, Wontech Inc., Korea) with an emission wavelength of 2.10 μm and a Moses effect was used. To verify the Moses effect based on the changes in the pulse, a water tank was fabricated, and the ureteral phantom was manufactured in a structure that could be easily installed in the water tank. Additionally, a spherical artificial stone in the ureteral phantom was prepared by mixing calcined gypsum (Cacinated Gypsum) and water at a ratio of 3:1. In the ureteral phantom, a high‐speed camera (FASTCAM NOVA S12, Photron Inc.) and visible light were used to record pulse‐dependent image analysis of bubbles and stone retropulsion.


After mounting the artificial stone in the ureteral phantom, the pulse duration and energy of the first pulse of the Moses effect laser were varied; 30 laser shots for 3 s at a repetition rate of 10 Hz were applied to quantify the lithotripsy efficiency and stone retropulsion displacement, and the experimental values were compared. The fragmentation efficiency was confirmed by measuring the mass before and after the laser pulse application, the original position of the stone retropulsion displacement, and the distance moved. The minimum value of stone retropulsion displacement appeared when the pulse duration of the first pulse was 300 μs, the pulse energy was 100 mJ, and the value was approximately 0.28 mm. The highest fragmentation efficiency was observed under the same conditions, and the mass loss of the artificial stone at that time was approximately 3.7 mg.


Quantitative indices, such as lithotripsy efficiency and stone retropulsion displacement, were confirmed using ultrahigh‐speed cameras to determine the effect of the first pulse energy and duration of the Ho: YAG laser with the Moses effect on stone removal. It was confirmed that the longer the duration of the primary pulse and the lower the energy, the higher the fragmentation efficiency. In this study, the possibility of manufacturing a laser with an optimal stone‐removal effect was confirmed according to the first‐pulse condition of the laser with the Moses effect.

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