DOI: 10.1097/md.0000000000036705 ISSN: 0025-7974

Analysis of competing risks of cardiovascular death in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: A population-based study

Lizhi Cao, Xiaoying Wang, Yuzhong Yan, Zhongping Ning, Linlin Ma, Yanfei Li
  • General Medicine

Clinical data has shown that cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have emerged as a prominent cause of mortality in individuals with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This research aimed to reveal the comorbid effects of CVDs in patients with HCC. The cardiovascular mortality of patients diagnosed with HCC between 2000 and 2014 was compared to that of the general US population. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated to quantify the relative risk of cardiovascular mortality in HCC patients. The cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death (CVD) was estimated using Fine-Gray testing, and independent risk factors for CVD were determined using competing risk models. The results were analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier analysis. The overall SMR for CVD in HCC patients was 11.15 (95% CI: 10.99–11.32). The risk of CVD was significantly higher in patients aged < 55 years (SMR: 56.19 [95% CI: 54.97–57.44]) compared to those aged ≥ 75 years (SMR: 1.86 [95% CI: 1.75–1.97]). This study suggests that patients with HCC are at significant risk of developing CVD. Competing risk analyses indicated that age, grade, tumor size, surveillance, epidemiology, and end results stage, and surgical status were independent risk factors for CVD in patients with HCC. Therefore, patients with HCC require enhanced preventive screening and management of CVDs during and after treatment to improve patient survival.

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