DOI: 10.3390/su16062310 ISSN: 2071-1050

Analysis and Simulation of Land Use Changes and Their Impact on Carbon Stocks in the Haihe River Basin by Combining LSTM with the InVEST Model

Yanzhen Lin, Lei Chen, Ying Ma, Tingting Yang
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction

The quantitative analysis and prediction of spatiotemporal patterns of land use in Haihe River Basin are of great significance for land use and ecological planning management. To reveal the changes in land use and carbon stock, the spatial–temporal pattern of land use data in the Haihe River Basin from 2000 to 2020 was studied via Mann–Kendall (MK) trend analysis, the transfer matrix, and land use dynamic attitude. Through integrating the models of the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) and the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM), the results of the spatial distribution of land use and carbon stock were obtained and compared with Cellular Automation (CA-Markov), and then applied to predict the spatial distribution in 2025. The results show the following: (1) The land use and land cover (LULC) changes in the Haihe River Basin primarily involve an exchange between cultivated land, forest, and grassland, as well as the conversion of cultivated land to built-up land. This transformation contributes to the overall decrease in carbon storage in the basin, which declined by approximately 1.20% from 2000 to 2020. (2) The LULC prediction accuracy of LSTM is nearly 2.00% higher than that of CA-Markov, reaching 95.01%. (3) In 2025, the area of grassland in Haihe River Basin will increase the most, while the area of cultivated land will decrease the most. The spatial distribution of carbon stocks is higher in the northwest and lower in the southeast, and the changing areas are scattered throughout the study area. However, due to the substantial growth of grassland and forest, the carbon stocks in the Haihe River Basin in 2025 will increase by about 10 times compared with 2020. The research results can provide a theoretical basis and reference for watershed land use planning, ecological restoration, and management.

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