DOI: 10.2217/nnm-2023-0196 ISSN: 1743-5889

An update review of smart nanotherapeutics and liver cancer: opportunities and challenges

Farid Mostafaei, Somayeh Mahdinloo, Hadi Valizadeh, Salar Hemmati, Mahdieh Abdi, Muhammad Sarfraz, Behzad Baradaran, Parvin Zakeri-Milani
  • Development
  • General Materials Science
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Bioengineering

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form of primary liver cancer, typically diagnosed in advanced stages. Chemotherapy is necessary for treating advanced liver cancer; however, several challenges affect its effectiveness. These challenges include low specificity, high dosage requirements, high systemic toxicity and severe side effects, which significantly limit the efficacy of chemotherapy. These limitations can hinder the treatment of HCC. This review focuses on the prevalence of HCC, different types of liver cancer and the staging of the disease, along with available treatment methods. Additionally, explores recent and relevant studies on smart drug- and gene-delivery systems specifically designed for HCC. These systems include targeted endogenous and exogenous stimuli-responsive platforms.

More from our Archive