DOI: 10.3390/ijms25010142 ISSN: 1422-0067

An Integrated Multi-Omics Analysis Identifying Immune Subtypes of Pancreatic Cancer

Yongcheng Su, Fen Wang, Ziyu Lei, Jiangquan Li, Miaomiao Ma, Ying Yan, Wenqing Zhang, Xiaolei Chen, Beibei Xu, Tianhui Hu
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Spectroscopy
  • Molecular Biology
  • General Medicine
  • Catalysis

Limited studies have explored novel pancreatic cancer (PC) subtypes or prognostic biomarkers based on the altered activity of relevant signaling pathway gene sets. Here, we employed non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) to identify three immune subtypes of PC based on C7 immunologic signature gene set activity in PC and normal samples. Cluster 1, the immune-inflamed subtype, showed a higher response rate to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) and had the lowest tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) scores. Cluster 2, the immune-excluded subtype, exhibited strong associations with stromal activation, characterized by elevated expression levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, cell adhesion, extracellular matrix remodeling, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related genes. Cluster 3, the immune-desert subtype, displayed limited immune activity. For prognostic prediction, we developed an immune-related prognostic risk model (IRPM) based on four immune-related prognostic genes in pancreatic cancer, RHOF, CEP250, TSC1, and KIF20B. The IRPM demonstrated excellent prognostic efficacy and successful validation in an external cohort. Notably, the key gene in the prognostic model, RHOF, exerted significant influence on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of pancreatic cancer cells through in vitro experiments. Furthermore, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of somatic mutational landscapes and immune landscapes in PC patients with different IRPM risk scores. Our findings accurately stratified patients based on their immune microenvironment and predicted immunotherapy responses, offering valuable insights for clinicians in developing more targeted clinical strategies.

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