DOI: 10.4103/jomfp.jomfp_467_23 ISSN: 0973-029X

An in vitro assessment of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of root repair materials

Shreya A. Harti, M. S. Adarsha, N. Meena, N. S. Priya, L. Vijayalakshmi, Akshata J. Airsang
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • General Dentistry


The success of the root-end procedure depends on the regeneration of the functional periodontal attachment system, including the cementum on the resected root-end surface, periodontal ligament (PDL), and alveolar bone. As root end filling materials remain in close contact with live periapical tissues, they may influence the endodontic treatment outcome.


To assess and compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of three root repair materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), endosequence, and geristore in human-cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

Materials and Methods:

Cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts of the third passage were used in the study. They were placed in contact with the root repair materials. The cytotoxic effect on PDL fibroblasts was determined by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-tetrazolium bromide) assay after 24 hours and 48 hours intervals. Cell viability was determined using an inverted phase contrast microscope. The genotoxic effect on the periodontal fibroblast cells was determined by comet assay using imaging software.

Statistical Analysis Used:

Data were analyzed using Tukey’s multiple comparison test and Dunnett’s multiple test.


All the test materials showed higher cytotoxicity and genotoxicity at the 48th hour interval with a statistically significant difference from the control group (P < 0.05). MTA was shown to be least cytotoxic and genotoxic to PDL fibroblasts, followed by endosequence root repair material and geristore at 24 hour and 48 hour intervals.


The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of MTA were the least compared to endosequence and geristore on human-cultured PDL fibroblasts.

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