Ru Wang, Qingyu Zheng, Wei Li, Guijun Han, Xuan Wang, Song Hu

An Ensemble CNOP Method Based on a Pre-Screening Mechanism for Targeted Observations in the South China Sea

  • Ocean Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Civil and Structural Engineering

The uncertainty in the initial condition seriously affects the forecasting skill of numerical models. Targeted observations play an important role in reducing uncertainty in numerical prediction. The conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation (CNOP) method is a useful tool for studying adaptive observation. However, the traditional CNOP method highly relies on the adjoint model, and it is difficult to find the global optimal solution. In this paper, a pre-screening and ensemble CNOP hybrid method called PECNOP is proposed to identify optimal sensitive areas in targeted observations. PECNOP is an adjoint-free method that captures global CNOP with high probability, which can effectively solve the two major problems faced by traditional CNOP methods. We evaluated the performance of PECNOP by building an observation simulation system consisting of an ocean model and data assimilation. One of the assimilation experiments was dedicated to evaluating the stability and effectiveness of PECNOP in extreme events. The results show that, compared with traditional methods, PECNOP can stably capture the global CNOP. Extra observations and assimilation in the optimal sensitive areas identified by PECNOP can effectively improve forecasting by about 20% within 30 days. Therefore, PECNOP has potential to reduce the initial error of numerical models, which is important for improving forecasting.

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