DOI: 10.4103/mohe.mohe_23_23 ISSN: 2600-9404

An association of speed performance with bone mineral density in national-level Kho-Kho players

Kommi Kalpana, Gulshan Lal Khanna, Pooja Bhati
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • General Environmental Science


The study investigated the status of bone mineral density (BMD), serum Vitamin D and calcium and their association with performance outcomes in national-level Kho-Kho players.


Kho-Kho players (n = 52; aged 16–31 years) undergoing training in a national camp were recruited. A lumbar spine (L1–L4) scan was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry to assess BMD. Blood samples were obtained to assess serum calcium and Vitamin D3 status. The 30-m sprint and Illinois tests were used to estimate speed and agility performance, respectively. The Spearman correlation and linear regression were used to ascertain the association between BMD and performance outcomes.


T-score was lower in 22.5% (mean ± standard deviation: 0.32 ± 0.96; range: −2 to +3), and serum Vitamin D3 was lower (<20 ng/ml) in 13.7% and insufficient (>20=<30 ng/ml) in 54.9% of players. No significant correlation between BMD (T-score and Z-score), serum Vitamin D3 and calcium was observed. T-score (r = 0.295, P < 0.05) and Z-score (r = 0.321, P < 0.05) were significantly positively correlated with speed but not with agility. An association was also found between Z-score (standardised-β: 1.38, confidence interval [CI]: 0.34–2.44, P < 0.01) and T-score (standardised-β: 1.49, CI: 0.37–2.62, P < 0.01) and speed.


Low BMD and Vitamin D3 deficiency were prevalent amongst Kho-Kho players. Speed performance has an association with BMD.

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