DOI: 10.1002/jssc.202300695 ISSN: 1615-9306

An analytical framework combining online high‐performance liquid chromatography methodologies and biological properties of different extracts of Leonurus cardiaca

Nilofar, Ozan Emre Eyupoglu, Filomena Nazzaro, Florinda Fratianni, Shakeel Ahmed, Claudio Ferrante, Ismail Senkardes, Gokhan Zengin
  • Filtration and Separation
  • Analytical Chemistry

Little or no information is available concerning online high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) antioxidants and the antibiofilm effect of Leonurus cardiaca. Five distinct extractions of methanolic, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, hexane, and water were obtained from L. cardiaca. In the online‐HPLC‐antioxidant analysis of all examined samples, rosmarinic acid emerged as the primary antioxidant, registering concentrations ranging from 6 to 15 ppm at wavelengths of 517 and 734 nm. Notably, the water extract exhibited robust antioxidant activity In vitro. Regarding acetylcholinesterase and butrylcholinesterase inhibition, the n‐hexane extract exhibited superior inhibition with values of 3.08 and 5.83 galanthamine equivalent, respectively. Except for the water extract, all tested extracts (at a concentration of 20 μg/mL) exhibited substantial inhibitory activity against biofilm formation, in many cases superior to 80%, and reached even 94.52% against Escherichia coli. Although less vigorous, the extracts also acted against the mature biofilm (inhibition up 76.50% against Staphylococcus aureus). They could work against the metabolism inside an immature and mature biofilm, with inhibition percentages up to 93.18% (vs. Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and 76.50% (vs. Acinetobacter baumannii), respectively. Considering its significant antioxidants, enzyme inhibition, and antimicrobial activity, L. cardiaca emerges as a promising candidate for therapeutic potential.

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