DOI: 10.3390/parasitologia4010002 ISSN: 2673-6772

Amebicides against Acanthamoeba castellanii: The Impact of Organism Models Used in Amebicide Assays

Leonardo Fernandes Geres, Elena Sartori, João Marcos dos Santos Neves, Danilo Ciccone Miguel, Selma Giorgio
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences
  • General Environmental Science

Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoeba capable of causing keratitis in humans, with most cases related to contact lens wearers and surgical procedures. In addition, A. castellanii may cause pneumonia, granulomatous encephalitis, and skin lesions in immunocompromised individuals. Considering the lack of adequate treatment for acanthamoebiasis, the aim of this review is to assess relevant original articles that covered the current arsenal of drugs and models of organisms used in the field of experimental A. castellanii infection that have been published within the last 5 years (2018–2023) in journals indexed by the following databases: Electronic Library Online (SciELO), PubMed, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (Medline), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs), Google Academic, and Capes Periodical Portal. Thirty articles were selected, and the main findings showed that the available therapeutics for acanthamoebiasis are still limited and nonspecific, and no innovations have occurred in the last few years. In terms of novel chemotherapeutic advances, the last findings have focused on the activity of natural products (plant-based extracts), nanoemulsions, coated particles, and photodynamic association against A. castellanii, without advancing from the bench to bedside perspective. The choice of a non-representative model system for acanthamoebiasis, as well as the limitations of studies in vivo, impairs the advancement of toxicity analyses. Efforts should be made to expand the model systems used, standardize tests for evaluating anti-A. castellanii drug candidates, and increase and support research groups focusing on the biology of A. castellanii and the pharmacology of acanthamoebiasis.

More from our Archive