Altered Visual Function in Short-Wave-Sensitive 1 (sws1) Gene Knockout Japanese Medaka (Oryzias latipes) LarvaeKe Lu, Jiaqi Wu, Shulin Tang, Yuye Wang, Lixin Zhang, Farui Chai, Xu-Fang Liang
- General Medicine
Visual perception plays a crucial role in foraging, avoiding predators, mate selection, and communication. The regulation of color vision is largely dependent on opsin, which is the first step in the formation of the visual transduction cascade in photoreceptor cells. Short-wave-sensitive 1 (sws1) is a visual pigment that mediates short-wavelength light transduction in vertebrates. The depletion of sws1 resulted in increased M-opsin in mice. However, there is still no report on the visual function of sws1 in teleost fish. Here, we constructed the sws1 knockout medaka using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The 6 dph (days post-hatching) medaka sws1−/− larvae exhibited significantly decreased food intake and total length at the first feeding stage, and the mRNA levels of orexigenic genes (npy and agrp) were significantly upregulated after feeding. The swimming speed was significantly reduced during the period of dark-light transition stimulation in the sws1-mutant larvae. Histological analysis showed that the thickness of the lens was reduced, whereas the thickness of the ganglion cell layer (GCL) was significantly increased in sws1−/− medaka larvae. Additionally, the deletion of sws1 decreased the mRNA levels of genes involved in phototransduction (gnb3b, grk7a, grk7b, and pde6c). We also observed increased retinal cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in sws1 knockout medaka larvae. Collectively, these results suggest that sws1 deficiency in medaka larvae may impair visual function and cause retinal cell apoptosis, which is associated with the downregulation of photoconduction expression and oxidative stress.