Mustapha A. Ahmed, Elvis O. Ameyaw, Francis A. Armah, Patrick M. Fynn, Isaac Asiamah, George Ghartey-Kwansah, Felix K. Zoiku, Ebenezer Ofori-Attah, Christian K. Adokoh

Alkaloidal Extracts from Avicennia africana P. Beauv. (Avicenniaceae) Leaf: An Antiplasmodial, Antioxidant, and Erythrocyte Viable

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Organic Chemistry
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Biochemistry

Background. The emergence of drug-resistant parasites impedes disease management and eradication efforts. Hence, a reinvigorated attempt to search for potent lead compounds in the mangroves is imperative. Aim. This study evaluates in vitro antiplasmodial activity, antioxidant properties, and cytotoxicity of A. africana leaf alkaloidal extracts. Methods. The A. africana leaves were macerated with 70% ethanol to obtain a total crude extract. Dichloromethane and chloroform-isopropanol (3 : 1, v/v) were used to extract the crude alkaloids and quaternary alkaloids from the total crude. The antiplasmodial activities of the alkaloidal extracts were performed against 3D7 P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive clone via the SYBR Green I fluorescence assay with artesunate serving as the reference drug. The alkaloidal extracts were further evaluated for antioxidant properties via the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), the total glutathione concentration (GSH), the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay, and the ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The cytotoxic activity of the alkaloidal extracts was tested on erythrocytes using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide-MTT assay with little modification. The phytocompounds in the alkaloidal extracts were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. Results. The total crude extract showed good antiplasmodial activity (IC50 = 11.890 µg/mL). The crude and quaternary alkaloidal extracts demonstrated promising antiplasmodial effects with IC50 values of 6.217 and 6.285 µg/mL, respectively. The total crude and alkaloidal extracts showed good antioxidant properties with negligible cytotoxicity on erythrocytes with good selectivity indices. The GC-MS spectral analysis of crude alkaloidal extracts gave indole and isoquinoline alkaloids and several other compounds. Dexrazoxane was found to be the main compound predicted, with an 86% peak area in the quaternary alkaloidal extract. Conclusion. The crude and quaternary alkaloidal extracts exhibited antiplasmodial activities and ability to inhibit oxidative stress with negligible toxicity on erythrocytes. This may be good characteristics to avoid oxidative stress related to Plasmodium infection in the treatment of malaria.

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