DOI: 10.1097/ee9.0000000000000302 ISSN: 2474-7882

Air pollution, traffic noise, greenness, and temperature and the risk of incident type 2 diabetes: Results from the KORA cohort study

Mahnaz Badpa, Alexandra Schneider, Lars Schwettmann, Barbara Thorand, Kathrin Wolf, Annette Peters
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Global and Planetary Change
  • Epidemiology


Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a major public health concern, and various environmental factors have been associated with the development of this disease. This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal effects of multiple environmental exposures on the risk of incident T2D in a German population-based cohort.


We used data from the KORA cohort study (Augsburg, Germany) and assessed exposure to air pollutants, traffic noise, greenness, and temperature at the participants’ residencies. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze the associations with incident T2D, adjusting for potential confounders.


Of 7736 participants included in the analyses, 10.5% developed T2D during follow-up (mean: 15.0 years). We found weak or no association between environmental factors and the risk of T2D, with sex and education level significantly modifying the effects of air pollutants.


Our study contributes to the growing body of literature investigating the impact of environmental factors on T2D risks and suggests that the impact of environmental factors may be small.

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