DOI: 10.3390/cells12232752 ISSN: 2073-4409

AhR, PXR and CAR: From Xenobiotic Receptors to Metabolic Sensors

Leonida Rakateli, Rosanna Huchzermeier, Emiel P. C. van der Vorst
  • General Medicine

Traditionally, xenobiotic receptors are known for their role in chemical sensing and detoxification, as receptor activation regulates the expression of various key enzymes and receptors. However, recent studies have highlighted that xenobiotic receptors also play a key role in the regulation of lipid metabolism and therefore function also as metabolic sensors. Since dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for various cardiometabolic diseases, like atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, it is of major importance to understand the molecular mechanisms that are regulated by xenobiotic receptors. In this review, three major xenobiotic receptors will be discussed, being the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Specifically, this review will focus on recent insights into the metabolic functions of these receptors, especially in the field of lipid metabolism and the associated dyslipidemia.

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