DOI: 10.1177/00368504231218601 ISSN: 0036-8504

Advancing the initiatives of sustainable coastal and marine areas development in Pakistan through marine spatial planning

Zafar Ullah Jattak, Wen Wu, Jinzhu Gao, Kuncheng Zhang, Syed Hussain Murtaza, Mohammad Jan, Aziz Ahmed
  • Multidisciplinary

Coastal states are currently transitioning their traditional socio-economic activities into a single platform to address the emerging issues of the coast and marine environment. For countries like Pakistan, managing multiple coastal and marine activities is a significant challenge. The lack of proper management policies and an inefficient decision-making process put various types of pressure on the ecological functions of Pakistan's coastal and marine areas. The Government of Pakistan has not yet prioritized coastal and marine affairs in its policy agenda, resulting in a halt to the process of sustainable development. Moreover, a lack of financial allocation for large-scale coastal and marine projects, a shortage of trained human resources, insufficient coordination among organizations, and unstable political decisions and governance impede the sustainable delivery of the projects. This paper discusses Pakistan's coastal and marine policy targets and highlights various issues through PESTLE analysis, which encompasses political (P), economic (E), social (S), technological (T), legal (L), and environmental (E) factors that limit the advancement of sustainable coastal and marine development. This paper aims to determine the advantages of adopting marine spatial planning (MSP) in Pakistan and how its implementation can bring social, ecological, and economic prosperity. The study provides a baseline for the country's coastal and marine policymakers regarding the advancement of a blue economy through MSP.

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