DOI: 10.3390/bios14010017 ISSN: 2079-6374

Advances in Non-Electrochemical Sensing of Human Sweat Biomarkers: From Sweat Sampling to Signal Reading

Mingpeng Yang, Nan Sun, Xiaochen Lai, Xingqiang Zhao, Wangping Zhou
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • General Medicine
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biotechnology
  • Instrumentation
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)

Sweat, commonly referred to as the ultrafiltrate of blood plasma, is an essential physiological fluid in the human body. It contains a wide range of metabolites, electrolytes, and other biologically significant markers that are closely linked to human health. Compared to other bodily fluids, such as blood, sweat offers distinct advantages in terms of ease of collection and non-invasive detection. In recent years, considerable attention has been focused on wearable sweat sensors due to their potential for continuous monitoring of biomarkers. Electrochemical methods have been extensively used for in situ sweat biomarker analysis, as thoroughly reviewed by various researchers. This comprehensive review aims to provide an overview of recent advances in non-electrochemical methods for analyzing sweat, including colorimetric methods, fluorescence techniques, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and more. The review covers multiple aspects of non-electrochemical sweat analysis, encompassing sweat sampling methodologies, detection techniques, signal processing, and diverse applications. Furthermore, it highlights the current bottlenecks and challenges faced by non-electrochemical sensors, such as limitations and interference issues. Finally, the review concludes by offering insights into the prospects for non-electrochemical sensing technologies. By providing a valuable reference and inspiring researchers engaged in the field of sweat sensor development, this paper aspires to foster the creation of innovative and practical advancements in this domain.

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