DOI: 10.3390/jcm13010172 ISSN: 2077-0383

Advances in MRI-Based Assessment of Rectal Cancer Post-Neoadjuvant Therapy: A Comprehensive Review

Joao Miranda, Pamela Causa Andrieu, Josip Nincevic, Lucas de Padua Gomes de Farias, Hala Khasawneh, Yuki Arita, Nir Stanietzky, Maria Clara Fernandes, Tiago Biachi De Castria, Natally Horvat
  • General Medicine

Rectal cancer presents significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges, with neoadjuvant therapy playing a pivotal role in improving resectability and patient outcomes. MRI serves as a critical tool in assessing treatment response. However, differentiating viable tumor tissue from therapy-induced changes on MRI remains a complex task. In this comprehensive review, we explore treatment options for rectal cancer based on resectability status, focusing on the role of MRI in guiding therapeutic decisions. We delve into the nuances of MRI-based evaluation of treatment response following neoadjuvant therapy, paying particular attention to emerging techniques like radiomics. Drawing from our insights based on the literature, we provide essential recommendations for post-neoadjuvant therapy management of rectal cancer, all within the context of MRI-based findings.

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