DOI: 10.1097/cm9.0000000000002759 ISSN:

Advances in immunotherapy for biliary tract cancers

Yuhao Zhao, Mao Yang, Jiayi Feng, Xu'an Wang, Yingbin Liu
  • General Medicine
  • General Medicine


Biliary tract cancers (BTC) are a heterogeneous disease with poor prognosis, including gallbladder cancer (GBC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC). Although surgery is currently the primary regimen to treat BTC, most BTC patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage and miss the opportunity of surgical eradication. As a result, non-surgical therapy serves as the main intervention for advanced BTC. In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as the one of the most promising therapies in a number of solid cancers, and it includes immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) monotherapy or combined therapy, tumor vaccines, oncolytic virus immunotherapy, adoptive cell therapy (ACT), and cytokine therapy. However, these therapies have been practiced in limited clinical settings in patients with BTC. In this review, we focus on the discussion of latest advances of immunotherapy in BTC and update the progress of multiple current clinical trials with different immunotherapies.

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