DOI: 10.3390/s23249842 ISSN: 1424-8220

Advances in Diagnostic Tools and Therapeutic Approaches for Gliomas: A Comprehensive Review

Gayathree Thenuwara, James Curtin, Furong Tian
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry

Gliomas, a prevalent category of primary malignant brain tumors, pose formidable clinical challenges due to their invasive nature and limited treatment options. The current therapeutic landscape for gliomas is constrained by a “one-size-fits-all” paradigm, significantly restricting treatment efficacy. Despite the implementation of multimodal therapeutic strategies, survival rates remain disheartening. The conventional treatment approach, involving surgical resection, radiation, and chemotherapy, grapples with substantial limitations, particularly in addressing the invasive nature of gliomas. Conventional diagnostic tools, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), play pivotal roles in outlining tumor characteristics. However, they face limitations, such as poor biological specificity and challenges in distinguishing active tumor regions. The ongoing development of diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches represents a multifaceted and promising frontier in the battle against this challenging brain tumor. The aim of this comprehensive review is to address recent advances in diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches for gliomas. These innovations aim to minimize invasiveness while enabling the precise, multimodal targeting of localized gliomas. Researchers are actively developing new diagnostic tools, such as colorimetric techniques, electrochemical biosensors, optical coherence tomography, reflectometric interference spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and optical biosensors. These tools aim to regulate tumor progression and develop precise treatment methods for gliomas. Recent technological advancements, coupled with bioelectronic sensors, open avenues for new therapeutic modalities, minimizing invasiveness and enabling multimodal targeting with unprecedented precision. The next generation of multimodal therapeutic strategies holds potential for precision medicine, aiding the early detection and effective management of solid brain tumors. These innovations offer promise in adopting precision medicine methodologies, enabling early disease detection, and improving solid brain tumor management. This review comprehensively recognizes the critical role of pioneering therapeutic interventions, holding significant potential to revolutionize brain tumor therapeutics.

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