Advances in Adjuvanted Influenza VaccinesShintaro Shichinohe, Tokiko Watanabe
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases
- Drug Discovery
The numerous influenza infections that occur every year present a major public health problem. Influenza vaccines are important for the prevention of the disease; however, their effectiveness against infection can be suboptimal. Particularly in the elderly, immune induction can be insufficient, and the vaccine efficacy against infection is usually lower than that in young adults. Vaccine efficacy can be improved by the addition of adjuvants, and an influenza vaccine with an oil-in-water adjuvant MF59, FLUAD, has been recently licensed in the United States and other countries for persons aged 65 years and older. Although the adverse effects of adjuvanted vaccines have been a concern, many adverse effects of currently approved adjuvanted influenza vaccines are mild and acceptable, given the overriding benefits of the vaccine. Since sufficient immunity can be induced with a small amount of vaccine antigen in the presence of an adjuvant, adjuvanted vaccines promote dose sparing and the prompt preparation of vaccines for pandemic influenza. Adjuvants not only enhance the immune response to antigens but can also be effective against antigenically different viruses. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of influenza vaccines, both past and present, before presenting a discussion of adjuvanted influenza vaccines and their future.