DOI: 10.1177/17562848231218561 ISSN: 1756-2848

Advancements in endoscopic management of small-bowel polyps in Peutz–Jeghers syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis

Yohei Funayama, Satoshi Shinozaki, Tomonori Yano, Hironori Yamamoto
  • Gastroenterology

Before the development of double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE), the standard management of small-bowel polyposis was surgical resection. This is an invasive procedure that could lead to short bowel syndrome. In the 21st century, several new enteroscopy techniques were distributed worldwide, including DBE, single-balloon enteroscopy, spiral enteroscopy, and motorized spiral enteroscopy. These devices enable the diagnoses and endoscopic interventions in the entire small bowel, even in patients with a history of laparotomy. In patients with Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS), endoscopic ischemic polypectomy with clips or a detachable snare is the preferred method for managing pedunculated polyps because it is less likely to cause adverse events than conventional polypectomy. Although polyps in patients with PJS always recur, repeat endoscopic resection can reduce the total number and mean size of polyps in the long-term clinical course. Endoscopic reduction of small-bowel intussusception caused by PJS polyps can be successfully performed using DBE without surgery. A transparent hood is useful for securing a visual field during the treatment of small-bowel polyps, and minimal water exchange method is recommended to facilitate deep insertion. Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Because jejunal and ileal polyps in patients with FAP have the potential to develop into cancer via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence, periodical surveillance, and endoscopic resection are needed for them, not only polyps in the duodenum. In cases of multiple small-bowel polyps in patients with FAP, cold snare polypectomy without retrieval is an acceptable treatment option for polyps that are 10 mm or smaller in size. Additional good pieces of evidence are necessary to confirm these findings because this narrative review mostly includes retrospective observational studies from single center, case reports, and expert reviews.

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