DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics13243633 ISSN: 2075-4418

Addressing Challenges in Diagnosis, Differential Diagnosis, and Treatment of Pemphigus: A Case Series

Zulfa Fidi Pranadwista, Etis Duhita Rahayuningtyas, Irna Sufiawati
  • Clinical Biochemistry

Pemphigus is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by skin blisters and erosions, with or without mucosal involvement. The clinical presentation of pemphigus can resemble other bullous diseases, leading to challenges in diagnosis. This report aims to address the challenges in diagnosing and treating oral pemphigus. Three patients, ranging in age from 26 to 55 years, complained of a sore throat and mouth canker sores. Extra-oral examination revealed dry lips in case 1, while serosanguinolenta crust on the lip that bled easily was found in case 2. Intra-oral examinations in all cases showed multiple painful, sloughing-covered, erosive lesions on the entire oral mucosa. The histopathological examination of case 1 revealed pemphigus foliaceous, whereas cases 2 and 3 showed pemphigus vulgaris. Secondary syphilis-like pemphigus was given as a differential diagnosis in case 2 due to the histopathological changes not being specific. The patients were instructed to maintain oral hygiene and treated with corticosteroid, analgesic, antifungal, and anti-inflammation mouthwash, as well as vitamins and minerals. All cases showed improvement in oral lesions within 14 days to a month. In conclusion, pemphigus may mimic other bullous diseases, making diagnosis challenging. A comprehensive clinical and laboratory assessment is necessary to provide accurate diagnosis and treatment.

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