DOI: 10.1002/adma.202307546 ISSN: 0935-9648

Additively Manufactured Flexible Liquid Metal–Coated Self‐Powered Magnetoelectric Sensors with High Design Freedom

Hongzhi Wu, Ruiying Luo, Zhuofan Li, Yujia Tian, Jiayi Yuan, Bin Su, Kun Zhou, Chunze Yan, Yusheng Shi
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science


Although additive manufacturing enables controllable structural design and customized performance for magnetoelectric sensors, their design and fabrication still require careful matching of the size and modulus between the magnetic and conductive components. Achieving magnetoelectric integration remains challenging, and the rigid coils limit the flexibility of the sensors. To overcome these obstacles, this study proposes a composite process combining selective laser sintering (SLS) and 3D transfer printing for fabricating flexible liquid metal‐coated magnetoelectric sensors. The liquid metal forms a conformal conductive network on the SLS‐printed magnetic lattice structure. Deformation of the structure alters the magnetic flux passing through it, thereby generating voltage. A reverse model segmentation and summation method is established to calculate the theoretical magnetic flux. The impact of the volume fraction, unit size, and height of the sensors on the voltage is studied, and optimization of these factors yields a maximum voltage of 45.6 µV. The sensor has excellent sensing performance with a sensitivity of 10.9 kPa−1 and a minimum detection pressure of 0.1 kPa. The voltage can be generated through various external forces. This work presents a significant advancement in fabricating liquid metal‐based magnetoelectric sensors by improving their structural flexibility, magnetoelectric integration, and design freedom.

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