DOI: 10.1111/1541-4337.13260 ISSN: 1541-4337

Adding pulse flours to cereal‐based snacks and bakery products: An overview of free asparagine quantification methods and mitigation strategies of acrylamide formation in foods

Amanda G. A. Sá, James D. House
  • Food Science


Thermal processing techniques can lead to the formation of heat‐induced toxic substances. Acrylamide is one contaminant that has received much scientific attention in recent years, and it is formed essentially during the Maillard reaction when foods rich in carbohydrates, particularly reducing sugars (glucose, fructose), and certain free amino acids, especially asparagine (ASN), are processed at high temperatures (>120°C). The highly variable free ASN concentration in raw materials makes it challenging for food businesses to keep acrylamide content below the European Commission benchmark levels, while avoiding flavor, color, and texture impacts on their products. Free ASN concentrations in crops are affected by environment, genotype, and soil fertilization, which can also influence protein content and amino acid composition. This review aims to provide an overview of free ASN and acrylamide quantification methods and mitigation strategies for acrylamide formation in foods, focusing on adding pulse flours to cereal‐based snacks and bakery products. Overall, this review emphasizes the importance of these mitigation strategies in minimizing acrylamide formation in plant‐based products and ensuring safer and healthier food options.

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