Acute exacerbation of immunoglobulin A nephropathy complicated by alveolar hemorrhage after coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination: A case reportTakahiro Uchida, Takashi Sakai, Takahiko Hoshino, Aki Kojima, Osamu Konno, Muneharu Yamada, Hitoshi Iwamoto, Takashi Oda
- General Medicine
Reports have suggested a relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination and new-onset or recurring renal diseases, of which immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is a representative disease. Alveolar hemorrhage in patients with IgA nephropathy is rare but reportedly has a high mortality and morbidity. To our knowledge, there have been no reports regarding the development of IgA nephropathy with alveolar hemorrhage following COVID-19 vaccination.
A 23-year-old Japanese man presented with hemoptysis and peripheral edema a few days after receiving a second dose of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. Severe renal failure and alveolar hemorrhage were noted thereafter, and renal biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis with mesangial proliferation accompanied by mesangial electron-dense deposits containing IgA. Renal biopsy tissue also showed chronic histological changes suggestive of acute exacerbation of preexisting IgA nephropathy.
The diagnosis of IgA nephropathy complicated by alveolar hemorrhage was made.
Interventions and outcomes:
Renal function did not recover despite treatment with high-dose steroids; the patient was maintained on hemodialysis and eventually underwent successful renal transplantation.
The present case suggested that although extremely rare, severe renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy could occur in patients with IgA nephropathy after COVID-19 vaccination. Future accumulation of similar cases is needed to predict the risk of renal injury following vaccination.