DOI: 10.32703/2415-7422-2023-13-2-357-375 ISSN: 2415-7430

Activities of Professor Tomasz Rylski (1838‒1924) in the birth and development of tests of agricultural machines in the second half of the 19th century

Mykhailo Klymenko
  • History and Philosophy of Science
  • Museology
  • Archeology
  • History
  • Archeology

The aim of the study is a comprehensive assessment of the activity, scientific and creative achievements of Professor Tomasz Nikodem Ścibor-Rylski in the development of the field of testing agricultural machines in the second half of the 19th century. To achieve the aim of the study, the principles of historicism, scientificity and objectivity of coverage of historical phenomena and events were used based on the application of the historical-scientific method, methods of analysis and generalization. For the first time, a number of archival documents were introduced into scientific circulation, which shed light on the scientist's activities in the field of testing agricultural machines. In the article, based on archival data, the available creative work of the scientist, the main stages of his activity in the issue of the origin and formation of tests of agricultural machines and tools are updated. The activities of Professor T. Rylski contributed to the birth of the scientific foundations of agricultural tests, the formation of the principles of rational use of agricultural equipment by farmers of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The professor's long-term participation in various agricultural exhibitions and competitions led to the laying of the foundations for the creation of the first agricultural testing station in Dublyany on the territory of western Ukraine. Justifying the need to create a test station, T. Rylski relies on the importance of the transition from the "exhibition" method of testing agricultural machines to testing at specialized stations. The scientist believed that it is the scientific approach to testing that will contribute to increasing the efficiency of the use of agricultural equipment and reducing errors during its operation. The formation of the Dublyany Higher Agricultural School, as a powerful scientific and testing center on the territory of modern Ukraine and Poland, is connected with the scientist's name. The creative heritage of T. Rylski indicates his invaluable contribution to the emergence of the scientific foundations of agricultural equipment testing. Therefore, it is precisely the absence of a special comprehensive study of scientific, creative and organizational activity of a scientist in the historiography of science and technology that determines the relevance of this study.