DOI: 10.1161/str.55.suppl_1.tp168 ISSN: 0039-2499

Abstract TP168: Association of Factors With Disorders of Consciousness in Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients

Kaiulani Houston, Lindsey Kuohn, Ariane Lewis, Aaron S Lord, Koto Ishida, Cen Zhang, Jose Torres, Leah Dickstein, Benjamin Brush, Ting Zhou, D. Ethan Kahn, Jennifer Frontera, Kara Melmed
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Neurology (clinical)

Objective: Disorders of consciousness (DoC) are known to correlate with worse functional outcome after hemorrhagic stroke. Here we evaluate factors associated low Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score at time of admission in patients with hemorrhagic stroke.

Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of patients enrolled in the Neurological Emergencies Outcomes Study between January 2014 and June 2023 of patients with primary intracranial hemorrhage (intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)). The primary outcome was coma (GCS ≤ 8) at time of admission. Univariable analysis with chi-squared test and Mann Whitney U test followed by adjusted logistic regression were used to assess the relationship between admission factors and DoC. We then confirmed the association with admission GCS and discharge modified Rankin score (mRS).

Results: We included 314 patients admitted with intracranial hemorrhage, 51 (16%) of whom had GCS ≤ 8 at time of admission, 51% female and median [interquartile (IQR)] age of 63 [51-73]. The median [IQR] ICH volume was 9.3 ml [2.5-27.2] for ICH patients and the median [IQR] modified Fisher score was 3 [3-4] for SAH patients. Female gender, Asian race, hematoma size, hydrocephalus, peak temperature, lowest hemoglobin, and peak glucose in the first 24 hours were all associated with DoC (p<0.05 for all). Controlling for age, disease process (ICH vs SAH), and all factors with p < 0.05, we found female gender (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.7-13.4), highest temperature (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9-7.3), lowest hemoglobin (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.6-0.99), and highest glucose OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02) remained significantly associated with coma at time of admission. Premorbid dependency as measured by Barthel Index was not a predictor of coma. However, coma at time of admission was associated with a worse discharge mRS (median discharge mRS [IQR] for patients with coma 5 [4-6] vs without 3 [2-4], p < 0.001).

Conclusions: We found that female gender, low hemoglobin, high body temperature, and elevated glucose at time of admission were all associated with coma. Low admission GSC (≤ 8) was associated with higher mRS at time of discharge. These modifiable risk factors are an important therapeutic target for improving outcomes for patients with DoC.

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