Abstract LB_C21: Exogenous N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB)-mediated tumor suppression involves effects on chondroitin 4-sulfate binding with SHP-2 and galectin-3, MAPK signaling, and transcriptional events, including epigenetic regulation ofJoanne K. Tobacman, Insug O-Sullivan, Sumit Bhattacharyya
- Cancer Research
In experiments in melanoma, prostate, colon, and mammary cells and tissues, the enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (Arylsulfatase B: ARSB), which removes the 4-sulfate group at the non-reducing end of chondroitin 4-sulfate (C4S), acts as a tumor suppressor. Following treatment with recombinant human (rh) ARSB in previous experiments and in recent experiments in the B16F10 mouse model of malignant melanoma, specific molecular pathways have been identified that retard tumor progression. These pathways involve more or less binding with chondroitin 4-sulfate when ARSB activity is modified. Galectin-3 binding with C4S increases following exogenous ARSB, leading to lower nuclear galectin-3 and reduced expression of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)4 and of carbohydrate sulfotransferase (CHST)15 in melanoma cells and tissues. Nuclear Sp1 also declines, inhibiting transcription of both CSPG4, also known as the melanoma-associated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (MCSP), and of CHST15, which is required for 6-sulfation of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate. These proteins are associated with more aggressive tumors, and decline in their expression is consistent with the tumor suppressive function of ARSB.
Inverse to the effect on galectin-3, SHP2, the ubiquitous non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN11), binds less to C4S following treatment with exogenous ARSB. The resulting activation of SHP2 impacts on MAPK signaling, reducing phospho-ERK1/2 and phospho(T180/Y182)-p38-MAPK. These effects lead to decline in expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP2 and MMP9 and thereby restrain invasiveness and metastasis.
Treatment of cultured melanoma cells with siRNA for ARSB leads to opposite effects to those of exogenous ARSB, including epigenetic effects modifying Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression. Treatment with rhARSB significantly reduces PD-L1 protein and gene expression, in contrast to increases when ARSB is silenced. The effects of rhARSB on PD-L1 expression are attributable to declines in phospho-JNK and nuclear c-Jun when free galectin-3 is less and to associated increases in histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 expression and activity. Consistent with these effects, the ARSB-silencing induced increase in PD-L1 is inhibited by peptide inhibitors of the JNK-c-Jun interaction and by HDAC3 inhibitor. ARSB silencing reduces PD-L1 promoter acetylation, as shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation with anti-acetylhistone H3 antibody.
The impact of rhARSB on signaling pathways, transcriptional events, and epigenetic mechanisms demonstrates how a critical sulfation and the resulting modification of chondroitin 4-sulfate can influence vital cell processes and can suppress tumor development. Effects on subcutaneous and pulmonary melanomas demonstrate the impact of exogenous ARSB in melanoma and suggest future prospects as a therapeutic agent. Recombinant human ARSB is an approved agent for the treatment of Mucopolysaccharidosis VI and is used safely and effectively for this congenital deficiency of ARSB.
Citation Format: Joanne K. Tobacman, Insug O-Sullivan, Sumit Bhattacharyya. Exogenous N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (ARSB)-mediated tumor suppression involves effects on chondroitin 4-sulfate binding with SHP-2 and galectin-3, MAPK signaling, and transcriptional events, including epigenetic regulation of PD-L1 [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the AACR-NCI-EORTC Virtual International Conference on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics; 2023 Oct 11-15; Boston, MA. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Mol Cancer Ther 2023;22(12 Suppl):Abstract nr LB_C21.