DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.395 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 395: Outcomes Of Mechanical Circulatory Support for Cardiogenic Shock in the United States: An Analysis of the 2017-2020 National Inpatient Sample Database

Claudia M Ramirez, Abbas Alshami, Ndausung Udongwo, Mohamed Ziad-M.Said, Kameron Tavakolian, Anton Mararenko, Viraaj Pannu, David Grzybacz, Steven Imburgio, Joseph Varon, Jesus Almendral
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Mechanical circulatory support devices, such as Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation(ECMO), Impella, and intra-aortic balloon pump(IABP), play a crucial role in managing patients with cardiogenic shock(CS). This study aimed to compare the outcomes and patient characteristics of different mechanical circulatory support modalities.

Methods: We utilized the National Inpatient Sample Database(NIS) data from 2017 to 2020 to identify patients with the diagnosis of CS who received mechanical circulatory support. The study population was categorized into six groups: ECMO, Impella, IABP, ECMO + Impella, and ECMO + IABP. The groups were compared based on patient characteristics, length of stay(LOS), complications, need for a heart transplant, mortality, and total charges.

Results: A total of 715,470 patients were identified with CS, 17%(122,100) received mechanical circulatory support, 5,675 had ECMO therapy, 33,360 Impella, 79,540 IABP, 1,890 cases ECMO+Impella, and 1,635 cases ECMO+IABP. Age significantly differed, with ECMO patients being the youngest 54[36-65] years. There were higher proportions of females in the ECMO-only(37.4%) and males in the ECMO+Impella(76.7%). LOS was prolonged in the ECMO group(14 [5-28] days) compared to other groups(p<0.001). Mortality rates were higher in the ECMO group(47.1%), followed by ECMO+Impella(45.8%) and ECMO+IABP (40.1%) (p<0.001). Higher rates of stroke, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and continuous renal replacement therapy requirements were observed in the ECMO group. Bleeding requiring transfusion was more frequent with ECMO+IABP, and limb ischemia was more common in the ECMO+Impella group (p< 0.001). Heart transplant rates were highest after ECMO+IABP therapy. Over the years, ECMO utilization increased, while Impella and IABP utilization remained stable. Notably, the ECMO+IABP had the highest total charges among all the therapy modalities evaluated (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The rising utilization of ECMO and ECMO-IABP therapies indicates a changing treatment landscape. However, these approaches exhibit lower survival rates, potentially due to the severity of CS, heightened complications, and increased costs compared to standalone IABP or Impella therapies.

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