DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.208 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 208: Evaluating the Predictive Power of Serum Biomarkers Neuron-Specific Enolase, S-100B Protein, and Neurofilament Light Chain for Neurological Outcomes Following Cardiac Arrest: A Diagnostic Accuracy Meta-Analysis

Muhammed K Elfaituri, Ala Khaled, Ahmed BenGhatnsh, Hazem Abdelkarem A Faraj, Ahmed Msherghi
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: The assessment of serum biomarkers, specifically Neuron-Specific Enolase, S-100B protein, and Neurofilament Light Chain, at 24 hours post-cardiac arrest is under investigation for its ability to predict brain injury.

Aim: This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of serum biomarkers NSE, S-100B protein, and NFL predicting post-cardiac arrest neurological outcomes.

Methods: A systematic search up to December 2022 across PubMed, Embase, and Scopus identified studies examining the association between 24-hour serum levels of NSE, S-100B protein, or NFL and neurological outcomes post-cardiac arrest. Statistical analyses were conducted using R software with mada package to pool sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rates, diagnostic odds ratios, and positive and negative likelihood ratios; each expressed with a 95% Confidence Interval.

Results: We incorporated 3 studies, with 759 patients in S-100B protein group, 753 in NSE group, and 799 in NFL group. At 24 hours post-cardiac arrest, NSE showed a pooled sensitivity of 37.7% (95% CI: 24.4-53.2%, I2=85.7%) and specificity of 85.5% (95% CI: 81.6-88.7%, I2=0%). S-100B protein demonstrated a pooled sensitivity of 54.7% (95% CI: 32.1-75.5%, I2=94.8%) and specificity of 81% (95% CI: 66.9-90.1%, I2=82.3%). NFL exhibited a pooled sensitivity of 88.1% (95% CI: 47.7-98.4%, I2=93.8%) and specificity of 93.6% (95% CI: 85.4-97.3%, I2=77.7%). The diagnostic odds ratios were 3.57 (95% CI: 1.79-7.15) for NSE, 5.15 (95% CI: 1.55-17.14) for S-100B protein, and 108.65 (95% CI: 11.02-1071.24) for NFL. The positive Likelihood Ratios were 2.61 (95% CI: 1.64-4.14) for NSE, 2.88 (95% CI: 1.37-6.06) for S-100B protein, and 13.87 (95% CI: 5.64-33.69) for NFL, while the negative Likelihood Ratios were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57-0.93) for NSE, 0.19 (95% CI: 0.9-0.33) for S-100B protein, and 0.06 (95% CI: 0.03-0.15) for NFL.

Conclusion: Brain biomarkers NSE, S-100B protein, and NFL, especially NFL, with its superior sensitivity and specificity, are promising in predicting neurological outcomes post-cardiac arrest, aiding clinicians in patient management and family communication. The limited number of studies and heterogeneity in results necessitate further validation and research of their predictability.

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