DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.18958 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 18958: Management of Patients With Suspected Left-Sided Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis According to Myocardial FDG-PET CT Results

Juan Caceres, Mark Edwards, Andrew Harris
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Accurate diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is challenging because echocardiography (Echo) can be limited by artifact from prosthetic material. Myocardial FDG-PET (PET) can improve diagnostic accuracy; however, little is known about its effect on patient management.

Research Question: Does PET affect management of patients with suspected left-sided PVE?

Methods: A retrospective, single-center study was conducted on all admitted patients with a history of aortic valve replacement (AVR) or mitral valve replacement (MVR) or repair who underwent a myocardial PET for suspected endocarditis between April 2016 to December 2022. PET was defined as positive, negative, or indeterminate based on signal intensity/pattern at valve prosthesis. For this analysis, patients with indeterminate results were included with negative results, resulting in four groups PET+, PET-, Echo+ and Echo-. Patients were followed up to twelve months. Data were obtained from chart review and supplemented with national death index data.

Results: Of a total of 146 included patients, 68% had a surgical AVR, 14% had a transcatheter AVR and 21% had an MVR. Median age was 63 years and 30% of patients were female. Most patients had positive blood cultures on admission (66%). The Echo+/PET+ group had a high rate of definite PVE (95%). PVE was rejected in 58% of those in the Echo-/PET- group. PET+ patients were more likely to undergo surgery in both the Echo- (24% for PET+ vs. 12% for PET-) and Echo+ (62% for PET+ vs. 20% for PET-) groups. High rates of prolonged antibiotic courses (73%) were seen across all groups; PET- groups had lower rates of prolonged antibiotics.

Conclusions: Although most patients with suspected PVE underwent initial conservative management, PET+ patients had higher rates of surgical management. Negative PET results may help to identify patients with suspected PVE that may not require prolonged antibiotics.

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