DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.18480 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 18480: Type 2 Diabetic Patients Have Increased Coronary Plaque Burden and Plaque Progression During 10-Year Serial Coronary CT Angiography Follow-Up

Emilie L Gaillard, Nick S Nurmohamed, Michiel J Bom, Robin J de Groot, Shirin Ibrahim, James K Min, James Earls, R. Nils Planken, S. Matthijs Boekholdt, Andrew D Choi, Erik S Stroes, Paul Knaapen
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Background Individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes are at high risk for coronary artery disease, however, data on long-term progression of coronary artery plaque burden is lacking. This study investigated atherosclerotic plaque characteristics and long-term plaque progression in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: Per-protocol, patients from a coronary CT angiography (CCTA) cohort were invited for repeat CCTA imaging, regardless of symptoms. A total of 299 patients underwent follow-up CCTA imaging with a median scan interval of 10.2 [IQR 8.7-11.2] years. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and vessels revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention were excluded. Scans were analyzed using atherosclerosis imaging-quantitative CCTA (AI-QCT; Cleerly Inc.). The associations between diabetic status, baseline and follow-up plaque burden and characteristics were evaluated using multivariable regression adjusted for clinical risk factors, statin use and scanner settings.

Results: In total, 274 patients were included, 43 (15.7%) had T2DM at baseline. The mean age was 57±7 years, 42% were women. At baseline, patients with T2DM had a median percent atheroma volume (PAV) of 6.80 (2.80, 17.70) at baseline; patients without T2DM had a median PAV of 3.20 (0.80, 9.55). Adjusted for clinical risk factors, patients with T2DM had a higher rate of plaque progression (Figure 1). The difference in PAV caused by T2DM was similar to the effect of a 13-year age difference. At baseline patients with T2DM had a higher prevalence of high-risk plaque (OR 2.11; p=0.025). After 10 years of follow-up, patients with T2DM had a higher prevalence of both high-risk plaque (OR 3.49; p<0.001) and low-density plaque (OR 3.74; p<0.001).

Conclusion Patients with T2DM had a more than twofold higher coronary plaque burden, increased plaque progression during 10-year follow-up and had an increased prevalence of high-risk and low-density plaque.

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