DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.18381 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 18381: Long-Term Coronary Artery Disease Risk in Female Adults With Surgically-Induced Menopause : A Systematic Review

Natalie Kearn, Emma A Mensour, Kiera Liblik, Barkha Sirwani, Martha Gulati, Nilah Ahimsadasan, Amer Johri
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in female adults. Prior studies have suggested an association between surgically-induced menopause (SIM) and long-term CAD risk. Yet, the pathophysiology and clinical significance of this relationship remains unclear. As SIM causes a premature cessation of potentially cardioprotective hormones, this review aimed to further investigate if SIM is a risk factor for CAD.

Methods: SCOPUS, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, OVID/Embase, SciELO, and LILACS were searched from inception to April 2023 for observational studies reporting the effects of hysterectomy, oophorectomy, and/or salpingectomy prior to age fifty on long-term CAD risk.

Results: Among 3056 identified records, nineteen studies were included with a combination of benign and malignant surgical indications. The studies reported on coronary heart disease (n=6), CAD (n=4), ischemic heart disease (n=3), and myocardial infarction (n=7). Sixteen articles with an average of 106,433 participants per study demonstrated a significantly increased risk of CAD following SIM (Table 1). In particular, hysterectomy with or without bilateral oophorectomy, and bilateral oophorectomy alone were found to have the most profound influence. Unilateral oophorectomy or hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy did not appear to increase CAD risk. Average follow-up duration after SIM ranged from six to twenty-four years. Five studies adjusted for post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy use.

Conclusions: SIM may elevate long-term CAD risk following hysterectomy and/or bilateral oophorectomy. Given that the majority of SIM are performed pre- or peri-menopausal for benign indications, understanding the associated cardiovascular risks is vital for informed decision-making, early detection, and prevention.

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