DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.18155 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 18155: A Rare Case of Acute Purulent Pericarditis Secondary to Invasive Streptococcal Infection (S. Pyogenes) With Cardiac Tamponade in an Immunocompetent 37-Year Old Female: A Case Report

  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

BACKGROUND: Purulent pericarditis is a rare occurrence in the era of modern antibiotics. It is most often caused by organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, and anaerobic bacteria with Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) being a possible, though very uncommon etiology. It is usually associated with an underlying infection or compromised immune system. Purulent bacterial pericarditis is a high mortality entity and represents only 1% of the causes of pericarditis, among these only a few cases have been reported of Streptococcus pyogenes pericarditis. This is an extremely rare case of acute purulent bacterial pericarditis caused by S. pyogenes in an immunocompetent adult patient with no underlying chronic medical conditions.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 37-year-old healthy female with no known comorbidities came in for chills, dyspnea, chest pain radiating to the upper back aggravated by deep breathing and relieved with leaning forward. She initially presented with unstable vital signs (hypotension and tachycardia). Electrocardiography demonstrated diffuse ST-segment elevation and PR segment depression, while chest Xray and CT scan showed lobar pneumonia. Blood tests showed leukocytosis with neutrophilic predominance indication infection and workup for autoimmune disease was done which was negative. 2D echo showed large pericardial effusion with tamponade physiology. An urgent pericardiocentesis was done with drainage of 350cc nonclotting purulent serous fluid. Cultures grew Streptococcus pyogenes (S. pyogenes) confirming the diagnosis of acute purulent bacterial pericarditis. Management for pericarditis including daily drainage of pericardial effusion, colchicine, ibuprofen was initiated together with antibiotics for the pneumonia and the patient had resolution of the pericardial effusion as documented by repeat 2DED upon follow up.

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