DOI: 10.1161/circ.148.suppl_1.18043 ISSN: 0009-7322

Abstract 18043: Massive Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm With a Massive Thrombus Presenting as ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Muhammad Asim Shabbir, Moiz Ehtesham, Tushar Sharma, Jennifer Nickol, Shahbaz Malik
  • Physiology (medical)
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Introduction: Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is a vessel dilation exceeding 1.5 times adjacent normal segments. We present a case of massive right coronary artery (RCA) aneurysm complicated by ST elevation (STE) myocardial infarction.

Case Summary: An 87-year-old female with no significant medical history presented with chest pain. Vitals signs and physical exam were normal. A 12 lead EKG demonstrated STE in inferior leads. Coronary angiography revealed a large aneurysm of the RCA throughout its course (max diameter 20 mm) with TIMI I flow. In the mid RCA, there was a long filling defect with irregular borders consistent with a congealed, organized layered thrombus causing 90% stenosis. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was not pursued due severe aneurysmal dilation and risk for embolization. The proximal to mid left anterior descending artery (LAD) and abdominal aorta were also aneurysmal. The patient was deemed not to be a surgical candidate after a heart team discussion (STS risk of morbidity or mortality = 12.6%). Left ventricular ejection fraction was 60%. Chest pain resolved and patient was discharged on indefinite anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy.

Discussion: Giant CAAs are rare, with an incidence of 0.02%. Causes include atherosclerosis, Takayasu arteritis, Kawasaki disease, or congenital defects. Although mostly incidental, CAA can be complicated by thrombosis, embolization, fistulation, rupture, arrhythmia, or sudden death. Our patient had an acute RCA thrombus due to stasis and turbulent blood flow in the aneurysm. Localized CAA are treated with surgery or percutaneous coiling or stenting. However, PCI was not feasible in our patient due to risk of embolization and difficultly with stent apposition in the setting of a diffuse, giant-sized aneurysm.

Conclusion: CAAs are rare but may cause grave complications. A heart team discussion is essential to guide appropriate medical, percutaneous, or surgical treatment based on vessel anatomy.

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